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The Entropy Reduction Laboratory

The Double-Shell Periodic System of Elements, Applet Version
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The Double-Shell Periodic System

Click on an element for a table of all properties of this element

Click on a property of the list to see a graph of this property for all elements
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If you click on a property from the list of properties, a chart displays the selected property for each halve of the double shells in a different color. The colored property curves are drawn above each other. Thus, each curve of the chart belongs to the elements of the same color in the abstracted periodic system which is displayed below the curves. By the two dots of identical color in the same column, each chemical element and its property is identified. By this way of representation an unisonant view of the properties is generated.
In the presentation of the ionization energies of different degrees we adopt the iso-electronic view: each atom/ion is placed according to the number of its electrons and not according to its nuclear charge (e.g. Cl3+ takes the place of element 17-3=14, i.e. the place of Si). Apparently, the nuclear charge plays a minor role in producing a consistent view on certain properties such as the ionization energies.
This is the Double-Shell Periodic System of the Elements (PSE).
( Alternatively the Periodic "System" is sometimes referred to as the Periodic "Table" )
  • Columns connected to the various chemical groups are numbered (1, 2, ... ) according to the new system of IUPAC.
  • At the right is seen the numbering 0, 1, 2, 3 of the double-shells. These numbers indicate at the same time the maximal angular momentum l = lmax occuring in the respective double-shell.
  • The letters s, p, d, f at the heads of the columns refer to the angular momenta l = 0, 1, 2, 3 of the boxes in the respective columns.
  • As a consequence, the number of the boxes
    • in the double-shell #0 is 1 with lmax = 0
    • in the double-shell #1 is 2 with lmax = 1
    • in the double-shell #2 is 3 with lmax = 2
    • in the double-shell #3 is 4 with lmax = 3
    The total number of boxes up to element 120 is 10.
  • The lower halves of the double-shells are designated by the topical quantum number c = -1/2, the upper halves carry c = +1/2. This topical quantum number is not shown explicitly in the PSE table.
  • The left halves of the boxes are designated by the spin quantum number s = -1/2, the right halves carry s = +1/2. This spin quantum number is not shown explicitly in the PSE table.

    In the Double-Shell Periodic System electronic states are fourfold degenerate.
Build up
The build up (Aufbau) principle for this table is simple:
Starting from the bottom, for each halve of a double shell, electrons start to occupy states of the highest angular momentum l = lmax and then proceed to states of lower angular momentum until l = 0.
See also
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Last update of the page: March 10, 2003